Tag Archives: strategy

Organizations, accessibility, and change

In the past years I’ve often found myself in the role of change agent—someone responsible for advancing new ways of doing things. It’s the most challenging role I’ve ever held, and I’ve reflected quite a bit on what works and what doesn’t. More recently I’ve been in the role of assisting other change agents. I have had to move beyond reflection to being able to articulate beliefs, approaches, and methods.

The expression “herding cats” had to have been coined by a change agent. It’s hard work, advancing a new program or belief—particularly one that is not widely valued within the community. Getting a group of freethinking individuals headed in the same direction can require coaxing, cajoling, and treats.

Not everyone is inclined to cat herding. I’m more of a dog person, myself, and believe effective change management needs more of a pack approach, with clearly defined roles and strong leadership.

Here I outline some key factors that influence success in leading and governing change to integrate accessibility into culture and practice within an organization.

Define and observe roles and responsibilities

For the Harvard Web Publishing Initiative we started each new project with a project charter. One of the key components of the charter was a section on project governance, where we identified roles. To create the governance matrix we asked questions like, Who has the authority to initiate the project? Who has the authority to approve the design? Who is responsible for defining the strategic direction? Who is responsible for the quality of the content? Who is accountable for misinformation? We required that they identify one person in answer to each question.

Projects worked best when these three attributes came together—when the person responsible for taking action also had the authority to make decisions and was accountable for the result—for example, when the person responsible for developing content also had authority to make decisions about content strategy and was accountable for misinformation. Projects that were more difficult to bring to fruition were those where the roles were divided among team members, or where the understanding of defined roles was not clear, or the roles were not universally accepted and heeded. All the projects in the initiative were successful in the end, but in some cases, progress was more challenging.

For accessibility to be successfully integrated into an organization, everyone involved in making decisions that affect accessibility needs to understand their role and responsibilities, and appreciate how their decisions affect the ability of others in meeting their responsibilities. Starting from a governance structure that everyone understands—and believes in—is a key step in advancing toward a practice of accessibility.

Confer authority along with responsibility

At The Paciello Group, or TPG, we help organizations achieve and sustain accessibility in their digital product and service offerings. I would characterize many of these efforts as “disruptive” in the sense that accessibility is not always universally valued, within the organization or in the market it serves.

That said, in many cases accessibility is a requirement, and there is a growing understanding within product development that, while retrofitting for accessibility may meet obligations, it is costly and the result is not satisfying for anyone—the equivalent of putting a wooden ramp on the side of a building to provide access. Instead of waiting until QA to consider accessibility, product development teams are taking a more mature approach to accessibility, and are looking to increase their knowledge and skills, and embed accessibility into their processes from the start.

Because this shift in approach requires organizational change, one person typically leads the activity. The role is often characterized as an “accessibility evangelist”—a person responsible for organizing the effort, raising awareness, providing training and resources, reviewing products and identifying accessibility issues for repair. This is usually not a senior role within the organization. It is often someone in an existing role within the organization who has an interest in supporting people with disabilities.

I remember one of my good friends, Professor Mark Williams, commenting to me at some point when I was at Dartmouth, “So you have been given lots of responsibility and no authority.” I don’t recall the specific project he was referencing. Many of my projects relied on my ability to persuade people of the validity of taking a certain path, and the strength of the commitment of the community. But his observation helped me understand at least one reason why the work was so difficult.

Now that I am advising organizations on how to advance accessibility, I believe one key is to move away from roles that have responsibility but no authority, and that rely on persuasion and good will to be successful. Accessibility means changing values and culture. To successfully shepherd a community through fundamental changes, we need to give the people with responsibility for making things happen the authority to make decisions.

Assign accountability for accessibility

With authority and responsibility come accountability. Accessibility in practice requires significant change to processes and skillsets. It also involves making accessibility a “non-negotiable” requirement, on par with security and privacy. Those responsible for implementing accessibility in practice must also be given the authority to make decisions that influence its success, and must be held accountable when products are released with features that do not comply with accessibility standards, and are found to be inaccessible.

Moving from assigning an “accessibility evangelist” to making someone accountable for inaccessible products is quite a leap. Very few organizations have raised their accessibility program to such a stature. A search for “Chief Accessibility Officer” on LinkedIn returned seven (7) results. But organizations that are truly committed to building accessible products would be wise to make the leap.

Because what’s the likelihood of getting a herd of cats to go in the same direction? By identifying a person who can lead the initiative— someone who has the authority to define roles and responsibilities and who is responsible for ensuring accessibility obligations are met—organizations can take long strides verses short, incremental steps toward building a culture and practice that supports accessibility.

In the meantime, back in the real world…

As noted, not many organizations have made accessibility a “chief” concern. I think we will see more of this level of commitment in the coming years. In my opinion we should be appointing Chief Experience Officers with accountability for accessibility as part of providing a quality user experience. But that’s a topic for another day.

In the meantime, how do we make organizational progress toward building capacity and support for accessibility, without leadership and governance?

BJ Fogg has a “flip book” that I love called Designing for Lasting Change. It’s a great source of insight and inspiration, confirming the value of “baby steps” and providing encouragement to hold fast in advocating for radical change. I highly recommend giving it a read, and keeping it close at hand.

Here are some thoughts for baby steps:

  • Look for projects and initiatives where accessibility can hitch a ride, such as quality initiatives, responsive web design, or website or app redesigns. If people are looking at some aspect of a product or practice with an eye toward improvement, accessibility fits in perfectly, as an improvement that benefits people with disabilities—and everyone else.
  • Find places where accessibility fits into existing resources. Do you have a style guide? Weave accessibility best practices in with other styles and conventions. How about training materials? Integrate accessibility guidance as just another competency.
  • If you are involved in any way in hiring decisions, push to make accessibility part of position responsibilities, and evaluate candidates on their accessibility knowledge and experience.

As BJ Fogg notes, “Don’t underestimate the concept of small changes.” Incremental steps put people on the path to bigger changes. Making accessibility easy and part of existing practice will build momentum and lead to more significant changes.

Innovating and disrupting, all in a day’s work

Recently I had the pleasure of speaking at the HighEdWeb New England regional conference. What a great bunch of people! I really enjoyed the energy and positivity of the sessions and the side conversations. This is a group undaunted by the challenge of bring order, quality, and new ideas to the fairly conservative yet chaotic medium of college and university websites.

Bringing order to chaos has been my main focus for the last five or so years as a web strategist, first at Dartmouth College and more recently at Harvard University. I spoke about my work on the Harvard Web Publishing Initiative at HighEdWebNE, and it was a great opportunity for me to get my head around some of the more innovative aspects of the project, and some of the challenges.

I started on HWPI in June of last year, as Web Strategy Project Lead. Personally, I love a challenge, and I can’t think of many things more challenging than setting up a centralized governance model, suite of services, and software platform for web publishing in an environment as large and decentralized as Harvard University. The project is ambitious and forward-looking, with strong backing from institutional leadership.

Our approach to HWPI has been enterprising on many fronts:

  • Learning by doing. Rather than engage in an extended discovery phase to learn the requirements for the project, we started with a pilot phase. We redesigned the websites of 10 academic and administrative departments, identifying the requirements for the platform and best practices for service delivery, and setting standards for user experience and design.
  • Guided by strategy. To avoid “lift and drop” redesigns we started each project with a project charter, asking departments to step back and define goals, target audience, and success metrics. We also identified and assigned ongoing departmental resources, particularly for content.
  • Focus on user experience. A consistent user interface improves user experience because visitors can learn the interface once, and then apply what they know to other Harvard sites. We designed common navigation and wayfinding systems for academic and administrative departments.
  • Commitment to quality. HWPI is about quality, and not just on the surface. We hired a digital content strategist to help departments craft their content to best accomplish their goals.
  • Software for higher ed. HWPI is using OpenScholar, a Harvard built Drupal-based open source software platform designed to help faculty communicate about scholarly endeavors. With origins in higher education and developers on the HWPI team, OpenScholar is expanding to include functionality needed for university communications.
  • Responsive and accessible. Early on we realized that a great visual design that works well in different contexts and devices would be an enticement to use the platform. We partnered with Happy Cog to develop accessible and responsive templates for the platform.

By the end of March we were through the pilot phase, successfully launching the 10 pilot sites. But it wasn’t always an easy process, for the team or the clients.

One of my lessons learned about our approach inspired the topic for my HighEdWebNE presentation: that innovative ideas need an innovation process.

An accidental innovator

When I started work on HWPI I thought it was interesting and challenging, but innovative? Not really. I had been working many years at Dartmouth on a similar service and platform. I expected this project to be much the same, only bigger!

As time passed I realized the project was not only innovative but also disruptive because it asks people to change their values. Rather than valuing customization it asks customers to value other factors, like a shared platform with central support, a common look-and-feel, structured content, and opportunities for content aggregation and sharing. I wish I had recognized the disruptive nature of the project earlier because I would have sought ways to adapt our process.

In my HighEdWebNE presentation I shared several books that are important for people involved in innovation projects: The Innovator’s Dilemma, to help recognize a disruptive innovation project, Diffusion of Innovations, to learn how to get innovations adopted, and Change by Design, for a “design thinking” methodology to support innovation projects.

Innovation and disruption may seem all in a day’s work for people working in technology. We don’t generally wake up in the morning and think, “Well, off to innovate!” But the customers we rely on—to adopt and enjoy the fruits of our labors—have a very different perspective. To them, we are asking a lot. We are asking them to change their values.

If you find yourself working on a product that your customers think of as new, first of all, recognize the project as a disruptive innovation. Then, form a small team to work exclusively on the project, surround the team with customers who want and value the features and capabilities of the product, and use an iterative approach of brainstorming, designing, and prototyping to produce a successful outcome.

Presentations slides from Slideshare

Slides from Innovative Ideas Need An Innovation Process, posted by highedwebne on Slideshare:

Web Emergency Plan

Screenshot of Dartmouth Emergency Information homepage

In light of events affecting campuses in past years, including Hurricane Katrina and the tragedy at Virginia Tech, many colleges and universities have developed protocols for managing emergency situations. The web is a key component in emergency management as a tool for notification, instruction, and communication. As a masterful worrier and contingency planner, I was only too happy to lead the project to develop a plan for using the web in an emergency.

Dartmouth’s Web Emergency Plan has several components, including:

  • An emergency banner that displays over most official College websites
  • An emergency website that displays current status information, and that would be used extensively during an emergency
  • An off-site emergency website that would be activated if Dartmouth was offline
  • An alternate homepage layout for use in the wake of an emergency

In designing these elements, we focused on ease of activation, flexibility, and lightweight design. In an emergency we knew we would need to act quickly and flexibly, as we could not predict in advance what would be needed. We would also receive a good deal of web traffic and needed to minimize demands on our infrastructure.

The campus has done a number of tests and trial runs and our protocols have executed according to plan. It’s a solid and robust plan—just what a worrier needs. While I hope its use remains purely in test mode, the Web Emergency Plan could make an enormous difference should Dartmouth ever need to put it into effect.

Web design articles for Peachpit

Screenshot of Peachpit article page

Peachpit is one of the most well known publishers in the design and technology industry. In particular, their New Riders imprint is the stomping group for the field’s most prominent experts, through the “Voices That Matter” series. I have had the honor and privilege of publishing a book, Access by Design, and many articles under the Peachpit masthead.

My most extensive series of articles has been for Peachpit’s Web Design Reference Guide. Alongside web gurus such as Andy Clarke, Robert Hoekman, Jr., Molly Holzschlag, and Dave Shea, I published 20 articles for readers interested in learning best practices for web design. For the most part, my articles focus on usability and accessibility concerns, including usable forms, flexible layouts, and data tables.

More recently I published two articles with Peachpit on user-directed design: one on making the case for user research and a second describing the components of a project charter.

Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center

Screenshot of DHMC Quality Reports page

I have consulted on a number of projects for the Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center, or DHMC. These projects have been great learning experiences for me. Unlike many organizations, DHMC is committed to user-centered design. I was given support for user research, both with resources and timelines. And most importantly, when it came time to make design decisions, user research was the guide.

The most interesting and challenging project that I did for DHMC was the design and usability for their Quality Reports feature. Quality Reports offers comparative data on how DMHC measures up across a variety of diseases, procedures, and cost comparisons. In 2003, DHMC was just beginning to plan for a rollout of this new and innovative feature. They wanted to provide the information in the best, most useful format possible. That’s where I came in—and where user-centered design played a key role.

The team at DHMC had several different elements in mind for presenting the reports: checkmarks indicating how DHMC was measuring against their quality goals; the data itself, and the comparison data; and explanations of the measures, so that readers would understand the significance of, for example, “aspirin at arrival.”

Screenshot of Quality Reports detail page

I developed several different functional mock-ups of the reports, each one combining the elements in different ways. I then did user testing to determine which approach resonated best with DHMC patients, looking for things like:

  • Did people react to the information/visual density of the interface?
  • Did they read the narrative text?
  • Did they like having the comparative data?
  • Did they like the checkmarks?

The most impactful thing we learned was that the scorecard approach, with only checkmarks, was too simplistic. Testing participants preferred access to the data and comprehensive descriptive information. Also, in examining quality reports, participants wanted to learn more generally about the conditions measured.

The interface for Quality Reports is a scorecard of sorts, but with data rather than checkmarks. Each measure includes a brief description, and is linked to a more complete description and data graph. Also, patients can access health information about conditions from the Quality Reports pages.

As of this writing, the designs I created for DHMC, including the home page, are still in use.

Arts at Dartmouth

Screenshot from Arts at Dartmouth

The Arts at Dartmouth website is an effort to provide a consolidated view of arts-related activities and opportunities at Dartmouth. The site is aimed at prospective students who are interested in incorporating the arts into their college experience. But the site also serves current students and the Upper Valley community who are interested in participating in the current arts activities at the College.

Collaboration is a key component of a cross-disciplinary project such as Arts at Dartmouth. Five academic departments, the Hood Museum, and the Hopkins Center for the Arts comprise the primary stakeholders, along with Admissions and the Office of the Provost. I was project leader, and in order to move the project forward, we formed a working group to do the work of the site, a management team to help with decision-making, and had regular sessions with the stakeholder group to touch base and get feedback.

Another important tool in the development process was the project charter. With many differing interests among the stakeholders, the project charter served as our touchstone throughout the site development process. In particular, revisiting our defined goals, target audience, and measures of success helped keep us focused and avoid scope creep:

Goals and Themes

  • Demonstrate the value that Dartmouth places on the arts
  • Demonstrate the distinctiveness of the arts at Dartmouth
  • Demonstrate the influence and value of the arts on overall quality of life

Target Audience

  • Prospective students (and their parents and families)—accepted students in particular
  • Current students
  • Dartmouth and Upper Valley community

Measures of Success

  • Increase in matriculation of students who are highly talented in the arts
  • Increase in the number of arts majors/minors
  • Increase in the number of students enrolling in arts courses, especially those who enroll during their first year
  • Increase in student participation in/attendance at arts-related activities
  • Increase in overall attendance at arts-related activities

In the end, the biggest challenge to developing and maintaining the Arts site is content. Each of the stakeholder departments has its own website, and expecting them to engage in content development for an additional website was not realistic. We developed a minimal collection of static content—testimonials, photos, descriptive text, and videos—as part of the site development process. Then we embedded feeds from other sources—Flickr, YouTube, calendars and news—to provide an ongoing content source, giving a more dynamic and current feel to the site.

The architecture for this “portal to the arts” is fairly straightforward. Each department and center has its own page, with text and imagery designed to express its energy and focus. The overall visual design is colorful and vivid, based on a color palette derived from the site’s primary visual element—a segment of an oil painting created by a student in Studio Art. The layout is flexible, adapting gracefully to different window widths.

Screenshot from Arts at Dartmouth

The Arts at Dartmouth website is an ongoing project. We continue to add to the site, refine our approach, and measure progress toward our success metrics.

Dartmouth Now

Screenshot from Dartmouth Now

With the rapid growth of the digital environment, a difficult task facing many organizations is to consolidate information that is currently spread far and wide so that users do not have to jump from place to place to get a complete picture. Dartmouth Now is one such effort, sponsored by Dartmouth’s Office of Public Affairs.

Before Dartmouth Now, the Office of Public Affairs (OPA) had multiple vehicles for getting the word out about Dartmouth, both in print and online. While leading a College-wide initiative to reduce print publications, OPA took the opportunity to develop a consolidated digital publication for Dartmouth stories. Dartmouth Now is Dartmouth’s primary information destination for current activities and initiatives.

My role in Dartmouth Now was primarily strategic. As project manager, I worked with OPA and Web Services colleagues to develop a project charter and timeline for the website, and to keep the project moving.

But I also had the opportunity to work with code. One of the project requirements was a software platform that would support comments, tagging, easy updating, and an approval workflow. We decided to use WordPress as the development platform. This was Web Services’ first foray into using WordPress. I joined the team in tinkering with the templates and CSS to help accomplish the design and functionality.

In addition, Dartmouth Now offers email updates via MailChimp. I designed the email template using MailChimp’s RSS-to-Email feature. Updates are automatically generated from Dartmouth Now’s RSS feed and sent to subscribers daily or weekly, depending on their preference.

Screenshot of Dartmouth Now email update
The Dartmouth Now email update is delivered using MailChimp’s RSS-to-Email functionality.