Tag Archives: accessibility

Year in Review: A Web for Everyone and Accessible UX

It’s been a year since I made the leap from higher education to a job in accessibility at The Paciello Group, or TPG as we are more commonly known. Here in my anniversary post I reflect on some of the good stuff that’s happened this past year.

Whitney Quesenbery and I completed our book, A Web for Everyone: Designing Accessible User Experiences, and Rosenfeld Media sent it out into the world in January 2014. We’ve been getting great feedback about how accessible and usable the book is, which is just what we were shooting for—to make accessibility approachable and achievable. There’s an excerpt from the interaction chapter at A List Apart and the personas are on UX Magazine.

We included interviews in the book, which we really enjoyed doing—chatting with people in the accessibility community about topics near and dear. We wanted to keep doing that so we launched A Podcast for Everyone, with help from Rosenfeld Media, UIE, TPG, and O’Reilly. We plan to keep cranking out episodes every two weeks, indefinitely.

My work at TPG has been intense—in a good way. I started out doing technical reviews of websites, web applications, mobile sites and apps, desktop apps, even telephone services. With my TPG colleagues—the best accessibility mentors in the world (and who are, incidentally, located all over the world)—readily available in my Skype window, I learned a ton about the technical underpinnings of accessibility in digital products and services. I continue to learn new things from my colleagues every day. Today I learned about taps, swipes, and other touch events from Patrick Lauke.

The other focus of my work at TPG has been on building out a practice of Accessible User Experience. TPG has been doing user research activities for a long time, and when I came on board I was tasked with formalizing and building out those services. Fortunately, TPG hired David Sloan around the same time as they hired me. Dave worked for many years as a researcher, teacher, and consultant at the University of Dundee and is an expert the impact of accessibility on user experience. We’ve been reviewing mockups, wireframes, and prototypes to advise on accessibility implications at the design phase. We had several user research engagements, doing stakeholder interviews and usability studies. We have a series of Accessible User Experience training webinars that teach ways to bring accessibility into UX activities. We had a really interesting and challenging engagement creating a roadmap for integrating accessibility into the culture of a large multinational.

Overall, it’s a great time to be working in accessibility with a focus on user experience. Companies are becoming more aware that accessibility cannot be addressed after-the-fact and result in an acceptable outcome for anyone. The costs are high, for producer and consumer. I look forward to continuing work with my TPG colleagues and the accessibility and user experience communities to bring accessibility into user experience, so that products and services are accessible and enjoyable for everyone.

A day job in web accessibility

I started learning about web accessibility in the early 2000s when I was asked to speak on the topic at a conference. Since that time I have had opportunities to develop my knowledge and expertise, but always as an adjunct to my day job. Web accessibility became a passion that I would weave into my other job responsibilities, and write and present about on my own time.

And I’ve had some really great day jobs, all in higher education, and all having something to do with designing and coding interaction. In recent years I’ve been less of a doer and more of a leader and strategist. I’ve had a great run in higher ed, with wonderful colleagues and countless opportunities to learn and grow. I am very grateful.

But! I have a new position as Director of Accessible User Experience and Design with The Paciello Group. A day job, doing accessibility! And accessible UX and design, to boot! And with TPG, working with colleagues who are the best in the business! (Can you tell I’m excited?!)

I feel incredibly fortunate to have the opportunity to combine my day job and my passion into one focused effort, and join others working to make the web accessible for everyone.

The Future of Web Accessibility: A Multi-Voice Choir

Back in May of 2011 I wrote an article about a new book project, Universal Design for Web Accessibility. Since then my co-author, Whitney Quesenbery, and I have been plugging away, stealing writing time in between moves, job changes, elections, violent weather, and the many other disruptions that come with living a full life. We are now about 90% of the way to a final draft and are shooting for publication in the spring. (If you are interested, you can sign up to be notified when the book is published.)

The book has evolved quite a bit from our original thinking. We had planned to use the Principles of Universal Design to frame the discussion, but in the end we drew on many principles, guidelines, and approaches to design that can be used to support accessibility. We ended up creating a framework for incorporating accessibility into the design and development process, with the goal of creating accessible user experiences.

One aspect that did not change is our desire to include many voices in the book. Web accessibility is a shared concern, with many viewpoints to shed light on the topic. Each chapter features a profile, where people with deep expertise in areas that influence accessibility provide helpful context and guidance on specific topics. We also introduce a set of personas in the beginning of the book and include them throughout, providing a first-person viewpoint on different aspects of a design.

Now we are working on the final chapter of the book, The Future of Web Accessibility. This is where we set out to inspire readers to put the guidance from the previous chapters into practice, making accessibility an integral part of their process.

We need your help to provide that inspiration. Whitney and I can say plenty about where we see hope and what we believe needs to change. But we are only two voices. Many voices together are more powerful, more inspiring. We would like to close the book with the force of a multi-voice choir.

To that end we created a web form where we invite you to submit your thoughts about the future of web accessibility. We would like to know:

  • What is your vision of a web for everyone, and how will we know we have reached it?
  • What signs are there that we are moving towards that goal?
  • What holds us (and the web) back from that vision?

We would also like to know a bit about you so we can represent your views accurately and provide proper credit. You can share your thoughts via the future of web accessibility interview form or using the commenting feature, below. You can also email me your thoughts at sarah.horton@gmail.com.

We will use the responses to compose a collective argument in favor of adopting web accessibility practices, and together take steps toward building a web for everyone.

Please, add your voice!

Storytelling, empathy, and finding purpose

For me, accessibility was a game changer in thinking about the purpose of design.

As a starving musician, I stumbled into design in the course of trying to put food on the table. Without a design education I was never quite sure of what design was all about. As an interaction designer, I was torn between delighting the eye and quietly helping people on their way—both visible and invisible, imposing and encouraging, shouting, “Look at me!” and murmuring, “You’re on the right track.” I muddled along, confused.

In 2001 I attended a Nercomp conference on Web Accessibility and presented a talk called “Practical Accessibility in Web Page Design.” This was my second presentation on the topic, the first a few months earlier at another higher ed/IT conference. Web accessibility was new to me and new to higher education.

Before lunch, Gerald Neufeld, PhD, gave a talk called “Visually-Impaired Students and the Struggle to Survive.” Dr Neufeld is visually impaired, and he described his time as a student, listening to texts on reel-to-reel tapes. He said that he could not afford to listen to a book more than once because of the time it took. He contrasted his pre-digital experience with his current experience of reading online, demonstrating the unimaginably fast reading speed he uses with his screen reader. He spoke of how digital technologies have leveled the playing field, removing obstacles such as reading and writing time for people with visual disabilities. “In 1980, the mountain I was climbing had no end. Twenty years later, that mountain is no more.”

Dr Neufeld was a compelling storytelling. I felt his frustration and distress, and worried with him about keeping up with such compromised access to primary materials. I also felt worry transform into delight at the world of opportunity presented by electronic texts, and software to read them. And while his access was much improved by electronic documents, he had stories to tell of obstacles he encountered, such as image-based PDFs. I felt discouraged by obstacles that could so easily have been avoided—opportunities that were so close, yet still so far.

Empathy is a powerful learning tool. Dr Neufeld told stories in such a way that encouraged others to step into his shoes and broaden their knowledge and understanding of the world. From Dr Neufeld I learned that the purpose of design is delivering content and functionality, without obstacles, to as many people as possible.

Universal Design for Web Accessibility

I’m just gearing up to start work on a new book. The book is called Universal Design for Web Accessibility. Whitney Quesenbery is my co-author, and Rosenfeld Media is the publisher. I am honored and grateful to work with Whitney, and to have the confidence of Lou Rosenfeld and the readers who reviewed our proposal. This will be an important book and I am eager to get started.

In many ways I have been working on this book since my first presentation on web accessibility in 2001, 10 years ago. I had been hearing talk of how the design of website elements could create barriers on the web, similar to staired entryways and revolving doors on buildings. I had been building websites guided by concerns other than accessibility. This was at a time when designers like me, who were concerned with layout and typography, used the rudimentary technologies available to coax (or hack) out well-designed sites. The code beneath the designs was not pretty, but the websites were. I was proud of my resourcefulness and my designs – until I learned more about accessibility.

I accepted the invitation to present on accessibility primarily as a push to learn more on the topic. I learned how people with disabilities use the web. I learned how web technologies, when used according to standards and guidelines, open up access to a world of opportunities. And in the process of learning about web accessibility I grew into my role as a designer. By understanding the impact of my decisions, I assumed responsibility for my work that goes much more than screen deep.

Since then I have been looking for ways to provide attractive designs that transform elegantly for different users in different contexts. I have found the universal design principles that guide the best accessible designs in the built environment to be a useful framework for designing digital access. I have also looked to architects and builders to understand how the profession has taken on responsibility for access requirements.

Whitney and I have high hopes for this book. The user experience profession will be asked to absorb responsibility for accessibility compliance. We want our book to provide solutions that are both practical and inspiring. And we want to establish a universal design framework for web development that will give rise to accessible design solutions.

Please help us by participating in the creation of the book. Our book website will be very active during development, and we will follow a reader-centered authoring process. Tell us what you need, respond to our requests for feedback, send us inspiring examples. Let us learn from you!

Google (in)accessibility videos from the National Federation of the Blind

The National Federation of the Blind (NFB) recently raised the possibility of civil rights violations arising from the use of Google Apps for Education, and asked the Department of Justice, Civil Rights Division to investigate. In their March 15, 2011 press release, Adoption of Google Apps Program Discriminates Against the Blind, they claim that both New York University (NYU) and Northwestern University, along with several Oregon public schools, have committed civil rights violations by utilizing these applications that have “significant accessibility barriers for blind people” to deliver email, calendaring, and collaboration tools to their students and faculty.

In following the story I discovered that NFB has devoted resources to preparing (captioned) videos demonstrating the types of barriers encountered by screen reader users in using these tools. As a long-time advocate of accessibility, who has tried countless methods for raising awareness about nonvisual access to webpages, this video collection is a goldmine. The videos illustrate both the challenges of nonvisual access, but also the ease of solving these challenges using good coding and design practices. The issues demonstrated using Google as an example are transferable (unfortunately) to many—maybe even most—web-based applications. Developers should view and learn from these videos, and avoid making the same mistakes.

I have long admired NFB for their work in ensuring equal access for nonvisual users. To admiration I now add my gratitude for providing exceptional content that can be used for education and awareness-raising by accessibility advocates, and to make real the barriers as well as the solutions for the people who code the pages.

Thank you, NFB!

Web design articles for Peachpit

Screenshot of Peachpit article page

Peachpit is one of the most well known publishers in the design and technology industry. In particular, their New Riders imprint is the stomping group for the field’s most prominent experts, through the “Voices That Matter” series. I have had the honor and privilege of publishing a book, Access by Design, and many articles under the Peachpit masthead.

My most extensive series of articles has been for Peachpit’s Web Design Reference Guide. Alongside web gurus such as Andy Clarke, Robert Hoekman, Jr., Molly Holzschlag, and Dave Shea, I published 20 articles for readers interested in learning best practices for web design. For the most part, my articles focus on usability and accessibility concerns, including usable forms, flexible layouts, and data tables.

More recently I published two articles with Peachpit on user-directed design: one on making the case for user research and a second describing the components of a project charter.

Access by Design

Access by Design book cover

My work as a web designer became more meaningful when I became involved with web accessibility. I found using design to address issues facing people with disabilities more rewarding than focusing on aesthetic concerns of flash and visual impact. And in learning more about universal design in other disciplines, I learned that accessibility and good design go hand in hand.

When I first became aware of web accessibility much of the attention  was in the form of guidelines and best practices. I was interested in integrating accessibility into design rather than considering it as an afterthought or as part of a validation process. All too often, accessibility is brought to the table at the end of the design cycle.

Usability through user-centered design was also gaining a foothold in the years leading up to Access by Design. Slowly but surely, design requirements for web sites and applications were being defined by user needs rather than the preferences of those making design (or business) decisions.

Access by Design integrates concerns for usability, accessibility, and universal design into a design methodology—universal usability. Human-computer interaction pioneer Ben Shneiderman defines universal usability as “enabling all citizens to succeed using communication and information technology in their tasks.” My goal in writing Access by Design was to provide practicing user experience professionals with a toolkit for achieving universal usability on the web.

As with Web Style Guide, the complete text and illustrations from Access by Design is online, along with additional resources to support further exploration and understanding.

New York Times article on web accessibility


Photo from office window with brick wall obstructing the view
The view from the window in my old office, obstructed by a free-standing brick wall

In the spring of 2002 I had an idea for an article. For several years I had inhabited an office in Berry Library at Dartmouth College. The office was nice—large window, high ceiling, new construction. But outside the window was a brick freestanding wall that obstructed my view. I tried not to let it rankle me, but every time I had a visitor she or he would make some comment like, “Nice view.” Thanks.

I heard through some source that the wall had to be that height—something to do with the golden ratio and classic proportions. But the reality is that every window on the first floor of the north facing side of the building looks out on brick instead of the beautiful New Hampshire landscape. And to top it off, the wall is purely aesthetic—it has no structural purpose.

At the time I was getting more involved in web accessibility. I found myself arguing against elements, such as Flash and dropdown menus, that were unnecessary and could potentially create barriers.

That’s when I finally found a purpose for the wall outside my window. I could use it as an illustration of how design decisions can result in unnecessary barriers. No one who visited my office ever praised the wall or saw its value despite the drawbacks. If I created a parallel using this unnecessary and obstructive wall, perhaps people would arrive at the same conclusion about barriers on the web.

The idea had traction. I wrote a rough draft and pitched it to an editor at the New York Times who had given Web Style Guide a favorable review. He connected me with the editor of the New Economy column and I was off to the races. The article, New Economy; Eye-popping graphics can spice up Web sites, but they also create barriers, was published in paper and online on June 10, 2002.

This article is one of my proudest accomplishments. The writing came together nicely and went out to a broad readership. I was able to raise awareness of the barriers facing people with disabilities at a time when web accessibility concerns were not well or widely understood.

Web Style Guide

Web Style Guide book cover

The first version of Web Style Guide was a web site called the Yale C/AIM Web Style Guide, posted in 1993, just as the world outside computing and academia began to notice the new medium and the Internet in general. The early web was sorely lacking in aesthetics but exploding with potential. Web Style Guide provided much-needed guidance on structure and design based on several decades’ worth of experience with print, hypermedia, and multimedia design and authoring.

In 1997 my co-author, Patrick Lynch, and I updated the Web Style Guide site to reflect the maturing design trends and changes in web technology. This was a time of significant progress in visual design and interface sophistication, but at the cost of standardization and accessibility.

In 1999 we produced the first print edition of Web Style Guide. The web site had gained a significant following as more and more organizations turned to the web as their primary means of communication. People with little or no background in design were assigned the responsibility for web site development, and they looked to Web Style Guide for calm, reassuring, and practical guidance.

Since its inception as a web site in 1993 and into its third edition, Web Style Guide has presented solid design advice based on classic design principles.  In the second edition we focused on solid design practices, acknowledging the growing attention to web standards and accessibility. In the third edition we were able to move away from issues like cross-platform compatibility and adaptation for people with disabilities, and instead provide solid planning, design, and editorial guidance for a more stable, accessible, and sustainable web site.

Web Style Guide is a classic. It has been translated into more than eight languages, and is commonly used as a course text for web design classes. Despite the availability of a book version of the guide, we deliberately chose to continue to make the web site materials freely available.

Screenshot of Web Style Guide page

“A style guide for the interface with real long-run value, showing us deep principles of design rather than simply fashion and technology.”
—Edward R. Tufte

“An Elements of Style for Webmasters.”
—J. D. Biersdorfer, New York Times, Circuits Section

“At last a book on the design of web sites with the viewer in mind. Non-technical, yet informative and lively: it delights as it informs.”
—Donald A. Norman, The Nielsen Norman Group