Category Archives: Books

Universal Design for Web Accessibility

I’m just gearing up to start work on a new book. The book is called Universal Design for Web Accessibility. Whitney Quesenbery is my co-author, and Rosenfeld Media is the publisher. I am honored and grateful to work with Whitney, and to have the confidence of Lou Rosenfeld and the readers who reviewed our proposal. This will be an important book and I am eager to get started.

In many ways I have been working on this book since my first presentation on web accessibility in 2001, 10 years ago. I had been hearing talk of how the design of website elements could create barriers on the web, similar to staired entryways and revolving doors on buildings. I had been building websites guided by concerns other than accessibility. This was at a time when designers like me, who were concerned with layout and typography, used the rudimentary technologies available to coax (or hack) out well-designed sites. The code beneath the designs was not pretty, but the websites were. I was proud of my resourcefulness and my designs – until I learned more about accessibility.

I accepted the invitation to present on accessibility primarily as a push to learn more on the topic. I learned how people with disabilities use the web. I learned how web technologies, when used according to standards and guidelines, open up access to a world of opportunities. And in the process of learning about web accessibility I grew into my role as a designer. By understanding the impact of my decisions, I assumed responsibility for my work that goes much more than screen deep.

Since then I have been looking for ways to provide attractive designs that transform elegantly for different users in different contexts. I have found the universal design principles that guide the best accessible designs in the built environment to be a useful framework for designing digital access. I have also looked to architects and builders to understand how the profession has taken on responsibility for access requirements.

Whitney and I have high hopes for this book. The user experience profession will be asked to absorb responsibility for accessibility compliance. We want our book to provide solutions that are both practical and inspiring. And we want to establish a universal design framework for web development that will give rise to accessible design solutions.

Please help us by participating in the creation of the book. Our book website will be very active during development, and we will follow a reader-centered authoring process. Tell us what you need, respond to our requests for feedback, send us inspiring examples. Let us learn from you!

Access by Design

Access by Design book cover

My work as a web designer became more meaningful when I became involved with web accessibility. I found using design to address issues facing people with disabilities more rewarding than focusing on aesthetic concerns of flash and visual impact. And in learning more about universal design in other disciplines, I learned that accessibility and good design go hand in hand.

When I first became aware of web accessibility much of the attention  was in the form of guidelines and best practices. I was interested in integrating accessibility into design rather than considering it as an afterthought or as part of a validation process. All too often, accessibility is brought to the table at the end of the design cycle.

Usability through user-centered design was also gaining a foothold in the years leading up to Access by Design. Slowly but surely, design requirements for web sites and applications were being defined by user needs rather than the preferences of those making design (or business) decisions.

Access by Design integrates concerns for usability, accessibility, and universal design into a design methodology—universal usability. Human-computer interaction pioneer Ben Shneiderman defines universal usability as “enabling all citizens to succeed using communication and information technology in their tasks.” My goal in writing Access by Design was to provide practicing user experience professionals with a toolkit for achieving universal usability on the web.

As with Web Style Guide, the complete text and illustrations from Access by Design is online, along with additional resources to support further exploration and understanding.

Web Style Guide

Web Style Guide book cover

The first version of Web Style Guide was a web site called the Yale C/AIM Web Style Guide, posted in 1993, just as the world outside computing and academia began to notice the new medium and the Internet in general. The early web was sorely lacking in aesthetics but exploding with potential. Web Style Guide provided much-needed guidance on structure and design based on several decades’ worth of experience with print, hypermedia, and multimedia design and authoring.

In 1997 my co-author, Patrick Lynch, and I updated the Web Style Guide site to reflect the maturing design trends and changes in web technology. This was a time of significant progress in visual design and interface sophistication, but at the cost of standardization and accessibility.

In 1999 we produced the first print edition of Web Style Guide. The web site had gained a significant following as more and more organizations turned to the web as their primary means of communication. People with little or no background in design were assigned the responsibility for web site development, and they looked to Web Style Guide for calm, reassuring, and practical guidance.

Since its inception as a web site in 1993 and into its third edition, Web Style Guide has presented solid design advice based on classic design principles.  In the second edition we focused on solid design practices, acknowledging the growing attention to web standards and accessibility. In the third edition we were able to move away from issues like cross-platform compatibility and adaptation for people with disabilities, and instead provide solid planning, design, and editorial guidance for a more stable, accessible, and sustainable web site.

Web Style Guide is a classic. It has been translated into more than eight languages, and is commonly used as a course text for web design classes. Despite the availability of a book version of the guide, we deliberately chose to continue to make the web site materials freely available.

Screenshot of Web Style Guide page

“A style guide for the interface with real long-run value, showing us deep principles of design rather than simply fashion and technology.”
—Edward R. Tufte

“An Elements of Style for Webmasters.”
—J. D. Biersdorfer, New York Times, Circuits Section

“At last a book on the design of web sites with the viewer in mind. Non-technical, yet informative and lively: it delights as it informs.”
—Donald A. Norman, The Nielsen Norman Group